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Territory: Environment
The variety of climatic conditions and altitude corresponds a notable differentiation of vegetable landscapes: it is possible to pass from the aridissime steppes of N to the shrub formations, xerophilous, of the center-north, the environment via mild section of central-southern, where however the natural landscape are almost everywhere replaced the flourishing crops, just interrupted by riparie formations of poplars. More on S extends instead the dense coniferous forest, with species like the alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides) and, in volcanic regions, the araucaria (Araucaria araucana), and beeches (including Nothofagus, or southern beech), that occupies the greater part of the territory in southern Chile, yielding finally to tundre of the extreme south. Linked to the special features of climate is also the abundance of fish in the coastal waters of Chile, due to the large amount of plankton induced by the Humboldt Current, which favors the high proliferation of seabirds (flamingos, pelicans, penguins, albatrosses) which is the considerable accumulation of guano that gave origin to the vast deposits of sodanitro of northern Chile. The territorial waters are crossed inter alia from different species of whales and Chile is one of the countries most involved in the international debate on the prohibition of hunting of these animals. The terrestrial fauna counts several mammalian species some of which spread along the whole arc of the Andes, other present in only some areas: blade, vicuna, alpaca, otter, ferrets, puma, guanaco, kodkod (Oncifelis ghigna), warning of the Monte (Dromiciops gliroides), a small marsupial that lives on the shafts considered a living fossil, huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), pudú (Pudu pudu), both deer of small dimensions considered in danger of extinction, the sea lion and Foca. In addition to the marine birds the avifauna includes other birds of mountainous areas where it can be observed the presence of woodpecker, condor, rhea, owl. The Forests occupy the 21.5% of the territory, despite the phenomenon of deforestation that has caused in the past the loss of large areas of forest species in southern Chile; in the first years of the XXI century there has been an increase of forest areas thanks to reforestation programs. Industrial discharges and the gases emitted from motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution especially in large cities (especially in Santiago), where there is also the phenomenon of water contamination caused by a non correct management of liquids to drain. The political sensitivity to the problem of the protection of heritage has ancient roots: the first Chilean reserve was established in 1907 and in 1926 the first national park; only twenty-five years after the protected areas had become thirteen. In the first decade of two thousand a fifth of the surface Chilean territorial is considered protected area, established by legislation in 1984 through the creation of SNAPSE (System Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas del Estado) managed by CONAF (Corporación Nacional Forestal). This institution has the task to protect the natural heritage and to promote the sustainable use of the forest ecosystems with a particular attention to indigenous peoples whose organizations are actively involved in the safeguarding of the territories inhabited by these Community. The protected areas include 33 national parks, numerous national reserves and natural monuments (14%); moreover the CONAF also manages some naturalistic sanctuaries are not included in the system of SNAPSE. The national legislation provides that areas at national park could not in any way be exploited for economic purposes and should therefore be protected all the resources they enclosed whilst the zones classified as national reserves can be used in a sustainable way.

Economy: General information
Chile is based economically on the extractive industry, more specifically on that of copper (referred in 2007 was the first producer in the world), but can count on other significant mineral resources (such as nitrates, silver, molybdenum) and on forestry; however, despite the enormous wealth of the subsoil and a no less high energy availability, mainly represented by the hydroelectric potential of the Andean area, the bottom structure remains that of a country secolarmente poor. Lacks a solid national industry, while agriculture is closed between the meshes of a large landed estate little exploited and a microfondo extremely divided and therefore scarcely productive, can satisfy only in part the food needs of the population. In the country there is an imbalance in the organization of production space: the most active zone is the central one; this oppose the areas of North and South, territories rich in resources and recent enhancement, mainly for exports toward the world market (nitrates, copper). The reasons for this situation is a serious weakness of the Chilean economy are many. As regards the mining activity, it was initiated after the first modest colonial interventions, by important American society (as the anaconda Co.), which were the actual useful; parallel industrialization, undertaken with a certain commitment only starting from the 1940’s, ended with the promote the speculative capital, essentially esters, while the productive apparatus remained deficient in all areas of the base. From the beginning of the Sixties emerged instances moderately progressive, aimed at achieving a more balanced development and independent of the Chilean economy, but only in 1970 with the election of the socialist S. Allende as president of the Republic were the first concrete expressions of a new course of economic and social life of the country. Were nationalized the extractive activity, and then all the other essential economic sectors. In the field of agriculture were made the expropriation of the latifundios and the distribution of lands for farmers, while they were introduced restrictive measures relating to imports, to safeguard the national industry. These initiatives, flanked by a policy of wage increases of commitments in the field of charitable and social reforms, aroused the immediate reaction of the conservative forces in Chile (which inter alia worked a massive flight of capital) and no less immediate retaliation of North American multinationals. Thus, for a competition of responsibility of the dominant classes in Chile, of small and middle bourgeoisie malcontenta loss of traditional privileges, environments international financial (which froze all the appropriations allocated to Chile and demanded the immediate return of those already granted), as well as for an incorrect evaluation on the actual consistency of the forces that supported the government program, Allende was easily overwhelmed by the opposition and by corporativism. This favored the success of the bloody military coup of 1973, which put immediately implement the complete reversal of the previous economic setting. It was taken in fact an economic policy which is distinctly liberal by the dismantling of customs barriers, opening wide spaces for the initiatives of foreign financial, the reprivatization process of all the companies already nationalized, as well as the payment of substantial compensation to foreign companies which had previously worked in Chile and the faculty granted them to exploit new mining areas (with the exception of only the copper mines, remained nationalized). They were also returned to the previous owners the latifundios already expropriated and dissolved the agricultural cooperatives; it was operated finally a drastic cut in public expenditure and welfare, which had constituted a significant source of livelihood for classes more hardship. The lack of a development program affected thymus heavily the evolution of the agricultural sector; more generally, incapable of solving the serious economic crisis in the country, the military junta, with liberalisation almost total imports, on the one hand produced the general ruin of small local industry, a low level of technology and able to withstand international competition, while on the other hand did enormously prosper the initiatives of the multinationals, attracted by the abundant underpaid workforce, from the possibility of exploitation at low cost of the raw materials, from the large reductions in tax matters. Were thus encouraged some sectors who worked essentially for the foreign industries and that, therefore, to a large extent were foreign to the real needs of the internal market. This led to growing import not only for food but also for industrial products of wide consumption. With the gradual return to democracy (late eighties), was initiated in the country a reform of its economic system: private continued to play a primary role, while the State took on the driving functions and adjustment. In the nineties the inflation appeared to be considerably reduced with respect to the values of the Seventies (300÷500%), arriving at 15 % in 1988, but this is for the most part thanks to financial maneuvers, in particular the continuous devaluation of the currency (GDP per capita was of 2730 dollars in 1992). Unemployment “official” went down in 1989, around 7 % of the active population, without however consider the widespread underemployment; real wages however had lost, only in the first half of the Eighties, over 50 % of their actual purchasing power. However the undeniable economic progress achieved (with new cuts in social expenditure, especially health and education) codussero Chile to obtain a restructuring of foreign debt. At the same time the trade balance mantenen during the period 1986-1991 a constant active (main partner the United States). In 1997 was launched a vast program of privatisation and modernisation of the port system in Latin America, with the participation of foreign investors. In the same year 1997 the country has also initiated a restructuring of the banking system. In August 1994 the Chile has become an associate member of MERCOSUR and in November of the same year, a full member of APEC; the country has signed free trade agreements with the EU, the USA, Canada, China and South Korea, participated in the CSN (Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones) and is engaged with Brazil and Argentina, in giving democratic stability in South America and in the establishment of the FTAA. In the course of 1999-2000 the economy has exceeded a phase of mild recession and has started to grow again thanks mainly to the strong recovery of industrial production. Gdp, which in 2008 amounted to 169.573 ml $ USA (with a GDP per capita of 10.124 US$), is growing. The economy of the country appears in the first decade of Two Thousand, among the strongest in Latin America: inflation is relatively low and the unemployment rate among the more content of South America, is in decline.

Economy: agriculture, forests, livestock and fisheries
The 12.6% of the active population is busy in agricultural activity, which contributes to the 3.9% to GDP (2008). In spite of the cultivated land occupies only 3,1% of the territory (also due to the conditions of the soil, predominantly mountainous and arid), agricultural production is diversified and favored by the temperate climate. Prevails in general cereal growing (but insufficient to satisfy the domestic requirements), with the majority of areas a wheat; descending toward the south are cultivated maize and then cereals of the cold environment (barley, oats) and potatoes, while in irrigated areas northern and central practice rice cultivation (culture introduced in Chile are in the Thirties and that it was immediately a great success). Important is the cultivation of sugar beet and even more that of the screw (the country is the tenth world wine producer, considered the best in the whole of America); special care are finally facing the fruit (apples especially, object of export; then pears, peaches, plums, besides oranges, cherries, grapes and dried fruit). Products for export are mainly cultivated in large commercial enterprises (which occupy three quarters of arable land) located in the central region; in the center-north are instead located microfondi with crops of subsistence, legumes (beans, chickpeas and lentils) and cereals. In the Country are also produced hemp, flax and jute. § The South, wet and relatively cold, has considerable forest resources (covering more than 20% of the territory), which include mainly austral beech trees and conifers, feeding various paper mills (the country is among the first world producers of wood and wood pulp); there are also poplars and eucalyptus; Chile, moreover, is among the first exporters of pines of South America. § developed are also the breeding of livestock, represented in prevalence from cattle, in central Chile, and sheep (especially merino sheep very valuable for wool), in the south, while in the highlands are bred llamas and alpacas, from which it derives a wool valuable; there are also the pigs, donkeys and horses and poultry. § Fishing plays a considerable role (Chile is among the first world producers of fish) and feeds the production of oil and fish meal. Among the species fished particularly relevan the salmon and oysters (in bays of Ancud and Quelalmahue). Along the coastal strip are located the main centers of preservation and processing of fish.
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Economy: industry and mineral resources
The secondary sector, although diversified, is not sufficiently competitive: it participates to a third party to the formation of GDP and occupies a little more than a fifth of the labor force. Remarkable are the regional differences in industrial distribution; the economic monopoly is maintained from the area around the capital Santiago, and from Concepción-Talcahuano conurbation. The industry is mainly linked to the processing of mineral raw materials: metallurgy of copper, steel (Talcahuano and Corral) and petrochemical plants. Other important industries are the agricultural-food processing of fish, meat, sugar and beer, wine industries) and wood (cellulose, paper pulp, printing paper); the paper mills are located in Santiago, Valdiva and Talca Considerable importance have the textile industry (working wool, cotton, rayon and synthetic fibers), establishments tanning and footwear. There are also a chemical industry (caustic soda, sulfuric acid, nitrogenous fertilizers), factories of explosives for the mining industry, pharmaceutical plants, different assembly plants (such as the one for cars Arica). It finally produce cigarettes, tires and cement. § The sector most rich of the Chilean economy is by far the mining sector. The oldest mining affects sodanitro, or nitro of Chile (locally called caliche, whose main byproducts are the borax and iodine), whose vast deposits are found in northern Chile (Iquique, Antofagasta, Tocopilla, Taltal) and which Chile held for decades almost a world monopoly; despite having lost value with the discovery of synthetic nitrates, has always so significant. In the north and in the center of the country there are colossal copper deposits (the main are those of Chuquicamata, El Salvador, Andean and El Teniente which are drawings foundry equipment and refining); from 1982 Chile is even the largest producer in the world. Chile is also the first places in the world production of molybdenum; there are finally good iron ore deposits, Silver (which is the fourth largest producer in the world), gold, manganese, zinc, sulfur etc. in Chilean territory there are numerous other minerals such as lead, borax, cobalt and mercury. Between the energy minerals are derived carbon (extracted at the coasts and in the area of the Strait of Magellan), and oil extracted in the land of the fire and transported with a pipeline to the shipment of Caleta Clarencia; there are refineries to Concón, at Valparaã so, and Talcahuano. Natural gas deposits are located in addition to the Wide Pampa, Punta Delgada and Chanarcillo. Rich is the potential of the rivers in the Andes: over half of the electricity produced in the country is of water source.

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