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General

Name

megabooker

About Me

The Artists
Capiscuola of American pop art are considered R. Rauschenberg and J. Johns, even if their work differentiated appears in many respects from that of artists active in the middle phase of pop experiences such as C. Oldenburg, A. Warhol, R. Lichtenstein, J. Rosenquist, T. Wesselman, J. Dine (in addition to W. Copley, H. C. Westermann, R. Lindner and L. Rivers). Personality and different expressions had the pop art english represented by P. Blake, R. Hamilton, R. Smith, D. Hockney, R. B. Kitaj, A. Jones, J. Tilson, G. Laing, P. Caufield, P. Phillips, E. Paolozzi, etc. The spread of pop art in Europe since 1963, has given rise to different interpretations according to the different cultural tradition. In Italy pop experiences were conducted by G. Bertini, E. Baj, M. The wheel, to which followed G. Guerreschi and G. Romagnoni(for certain research interests are to be considered pop artists Adami, Devalle, Pistoletto, etc.). Between the representatives of the pop art French and German are respectively Niki de Saint Phalle, Christo, Martial Raysse, P. Klasen and W. Gaul. Esauritasi as artistic current specifies, pop art has provided valuable guidance to subsequent experience expressive, from conceptual art to arte povera, from the hyper-realism to the mec art. To pioneers, protagonists and epigone of pop art the Royal Academy of Arts in London has dedicated in 1991 a great review, subsequently presented also in Cologne and Madrid.

Op Art
Loc. English (from optical art, art optical) used in Italian as sf. to define a movement contemporary artistic emerged at the end of the Fifties of the XX century in post-informel climate. The term entered in artistic vocabulary as a result of the exhibition “The Responsive Eye”, which gathered together in New York (1965) European artists engaged in visual research, refers to a broad range of experimental research on perceptual processes based on foundations of Gestalt Psychologie (Shape Psychology), from which the definition of Argan “gestaltica Art”. The New York Review of 1965 determined a prevalence of the American experience on those communities, up to absorb, precisely in the use of the generic term op art, the value and the measure of the important European contribution within the framework of the various trends of kinetic art, to which also belongs to the activities of the current op. Which lead the process of geometrical abstraction, the op art offers visual suggestions of movement (sometimes impressed by a special mechanism) through mathematics organization of geometric shapes and combinations of pure colors in such a way as to act on sensitivity perceptual psychophysics (and not on the traditional psychological support and cultural) of the spectator, which is thus involved in an active participation. A form of art based on purely visual, for which they are valid even the names of visual art, optical art, etc., as well as the concepts of “programming”, “design”, because it is precisely on the basis of these operations is based the formal realization, graphics and coloring of the opera. In the historical perspective the various trends of visual research move from cultural background well precise: from the contribution of the avant-garde Russian plastics (constructivism) and Cubism (in particular that orfico, with the punctual experiences of Robert Delaunay and Sonia Delaunay), to the achievements of Kupka and those of futurism; from neoplasticismo Mondrian in search of the dutch magazine De Stijl, up to essential contributions accrued in the context of the Bauhaus by J. Albers, researches of Max Bill, Vasarely and Julio Le Parc and B. Munari.

Biography
The poet and playwright Spanish Madrid (1600-1681). The Son of a civil servant, had accomplished formation in the humanities at the Jesuit college of Madrid and then in the University of Alcalá and Salamanca: classical culture and scholastic theology remained always the essential supports of its vision of the world. We have news of some stunt performed by young Calderon de la Barca in that Madrid Filipino whose chronicles are crowded with authentic comedies of hood and sword (brawls, duels, rats, sanctions police official and cheerfully answered, etc.); you ignore however fully the love life and loving of the future poet, that he should not have to be free of adventures. Certain is only that had, perhaps by an actress, a natural son called first in certain documents, “nephew” and later (when Calderon de la Barca had already priest) frankly recognized. Little is known of his military life, if not that took part in the campaign of 1640 in Catalonia, behaving honorably. From some allusion contained ne el sitio de Breda (the Siege of Breda) and other tragedies, it is assumed a presence of Calderon de la Barca also in Flanders. However, was precocious her vocation of poetic and dramatic: in 1622 he took part in a competition poetic on Saint Isidore of Madrid and was praised by Lope de Vega; at least from 1629 he frequented the theaters and began to compose theatrical works. In 1636 its intermezzo, Los tres mayores prodigios (the three largest wonders), in reality rather mediocre, was very warmly applauded the court of Philip IV – the maximum center of theatrical activities of the country – and perhaps this is why he was awarded the cross of Santiago, which implied a recognition of hidalguía. In 1651 Calderon de la Barca became a priest and was first appointed chaplain of the Reyes Nuevos of Toledo (1653) and then honorary chaplain of the Court, in Madrid. Here he spent the last twenty years of life, respected and agiato, voluntarily secluded from “worldly rumor”, in a beautiful house full of books, paintings and musical instruments, yet giving to the theater many works, especially religious matter.

The critical
Of the five “parts” of theatrical works published while Calderon de la Barca was in life (1636, 1637, 1664, 1672 and 1677), no was prepared personally by him and the last was indeed disapproved by the author; Calderon de la Barca published only very late (1677), a collection of twelve autos sacramentales, clearly the only part of his theater that the appassionava, at least in old age. Fortunately, on the eve of his death (1680), at the request of the duke of Veragua, rightly concerned for the apocryphal works and poor that were attributed, Calderón de la Barca compiled a list of their secular comedies; on the basis of this Juan de Vera Tassis published the posthumous edition (1682-91), largely incomplete – many works calderoniane went up in this way lost, although it is always possible to some discovery, such as those that occurred in Czechoslovakia in 1958 the Grand Duke of Gandía – that served as a basis for the rear editions and collects what remains of the theater of Calderon de la Barca: about 120 comedies and dramas, 80 autos sacramentales, twenty interludes and other minor operettas. Calderon de la Barca had then an existence in complex happy and a “life” posthumously happier still: had in fact numerous successors, imitators and epigone, even in America, and continued to be represented, albeit with some interruption until Romanticism, when he had a relaunching Parliament, with admirers such as Goethe and Shelley, and then enhancers as Verlaine, that the prefixed to Shakespeare. La Vida es sueño and several other his dramas are now recognized as indisputable masterpieces of universal theater. And it is almost a common place to compare it to Dante to the height of the religious poetry and theology (a Dante, is obvious, medieval not but the Counter-Reformation and Baroque).

The works
For convenience critical, it is usual to classify the works of Calderon de la Barca in different groups: A) tragedies and comedies of religious topic, taken from the Bible, from the legendary of saints and the hagiographic tradition of, among which masterpieces such as El mágico prodigious (The Magician of Miracles), the devoción de la cruz (the devotion of the Cross), El purgatorio de San Patricio (the Purgatory of Saint Patrick) and Los Dos amantes of heaven ( the two lovers of heaven); B) historical dramas, among which emerge mainly El Principe constant ( prince constant) and El Alcalde de Zalamea (the mayor of Zalamea); C) comedies of weaving and hood and sword, which emphasizes the sum ability of the playwright, capable To draw new effects, with humorous grace from arcinote situations and common places: La dama duende (La dama ghost), El escondido y the tapada (the hidden and veiled), House with Dos Puertas mala es de guardar ( A house with two doors is difficult to preserve), etc.; (d) comedies knightly and mythological, sometimes romance as El Castillo de Lindabridis (Castle of Lindabris), the Puente de Mantible (the bridge of mandible), sometimes very delicate theatrical fables as echo y Narcissus, purpura de la Rosa (the purple of the pink); E) dramas of honor and jealousy, dealing with crudeness one of the main reasons of social morality Spanish Golden Century: El médico de su honra (the doctor Of their honor), a secreted agravio secreted venganza (A secret secret offense revenge), El pintor de su deshonra (The painter of its dishonor), El mayor monstruo, los celos (the greatest monster is jealousy); F) comedies “philosophical” or symbolic, with masterpieces such as La Vida es sueño (1635; life is dream), true and supreme dramatic synthesis of ideas moral and religious of baroque Spain; G) farces, interludes and other minor operettas, glistening fresh humor; h) the group of 80 autos sacramentales, eucharistic dramas in an act in which the strict theological argument is enlivened with effects often unforgettable, by a spurt of inexhaustible high lyricism: El Gran Teatro del Mundo (the grand theater of the world), No hay más luck Que Dios (has no more luck of God), El Nuevo hospicio de pobres (the new hospice for the poor) and many others. It is said that the theater of Calderon de la Barca has two main drawbacks: the poverty of the invention – so sometimes does not hesitate to resume subjects already covered by Lope de Vega and others – and weak characterization of characters (already Goethe remarked that the characters of Calderon de la Barca often seem to soldiers of molten lead in the same mold). Blatant is also the total conformism in respect of the official ideas of Filipino Spain: the company of theater calderoniano is undoubtedly static, a aristocraticismo sclerotizzato. This however does not mean much to the artistic value and theatrical masterpieces of Calderón de la Barca, which resist the time by virtue of a painful Christian conception of life and an intense energy’ theater and poetry. The same Baroque language, that spiacque to centuries of rationalism (XVIII and XIX), fascinates today (after the experiences of avant-garde) for the dazzling originality: in particular that of autos sacramentales

Corneille, Pierre
French playwright (Rouen 1606-Paris 1684). Born of a bourgeois family (his father was inspector of the waters and forests), he studied at the Jesuit college of Rouen. Excellent student, species in Latin, you journeyed back then often ancient literature, for both aspects declamatori, both for themes. Seneca and Lucan were her favorite authors. In 1628 Corneille began the profession of advocate real in his native city and perhaps not thought never to be able to devote to the theater. The love for a girl had inspired him to write a sonnet and not be excluded, the same Mélite comedy in which the inserted. The opera, represented first in Rouen, then in Paris in 1629, had a discreet success and the stimulated to devote themselves to the theater. In 1632 he wrote Clitandre ou l’Innocence délivrée and before 1635 had already at its active other four comedies, in which the topic romance is supported by a style full of vitality. His first tragedy, Médée, is of 1635. It was in the meantime transferred to Paris and enjoyed the protection of Richelieuu. It was indeed part of the companies of the “five authors” with Boisrobert, Colletet, The Estoile and Rotrou, who had the task of putting in verses topics born from the imagination of the cardinal. But Corneille, that he never had the virtue of the courtier, soon lost the sympathies of the protector and probably also the subsidies. The success of Médée, in which the influence of Seneca was all too evident, made from the prologue to triumph that was then consecrated by his most famous opera, the Cid. According to some, the tragedy should datarsi 1636, year in which Corneille wrote the illusion comique; but documents that have come to light fairly recently confirmed that the cid should be placed in 1637, or that the first representation at the Théâtre du Marais is 1637. The tragedy of love and duty, reveals in a conflict of feelings, the depth of the characters of the protagonists in a dynamic theatrical that the Aristotelian rules observes, if not the unity of place, strictly the time. Corneille, in reality, poorly accepted the concept of the three units of place, action, time, but always tried to remain faithful, especially to the last, because its theater clash of passions and the drama of the will, the synthesis and the immediate unfolding events is essential to the chasing of sentiment, unable to the furore and full of soul prolonged in time. The Cid for the happy ending that celebrates the love of the protagonist and Chimène, is considered tragicomedy, more than pure tragedy, and certainly also triumphed for items sentimental referred is rich. The success of the opera lifted envies and complaints from part of contemporary authors (Scudéry and Mairet) and, if not an envy by author, Corneille drew a resentment from protector by Cardinal Richelieu. Today there is a tendency to reduce greatly the rancor of the minister toward the lucky playwright. The so-called “Querelle du Cid” has its official documentation in sentiments de l’Académie sur le “Cid”, drawn up by Chapelain (1638): it is however likely that Richelieu wanted to put in evidence the tasks of arbitrator of literature that the academy founded by him (and then very criticized) had to take. The artist, grieved, was defended by the accusation of plagiarism, but he remained impressed, so much so that he does not want more imitate works of others and its tragedies, after the Cid, will draw only to history. Of pride, Corneille deepened its qualities poetic with critical principles of which did faith his speeches and its prefaces and the same Examens with which accompanied the publication of works. The most valid answer attacks the gave with new tragedies. Two in one year only (1640): Horace (Horace) and Cinna. Horace is once again the drama of love and duty, for the sentiments which bind the duelists (Horatii and Curiatii) to women of the opposing families. Corneille dedicated it to Richelieu, perhaps with a semblance of irony, perhaps to demonstrate that the three “units” (Met) could not prevent him to create works equally valid. Even Cinna, inspired by the treatise De clementia of Seneca, was successful. But certainly the opera more high after the Cid and indeed for the criticism, the masterpiece in the absolute sense, is Polyeucte (1642), undoubtedly consider as the “Canon” of the tragedy corneliana. The matter has been provided to Corneille from historic Surius. Polyeucte is the Christian drama of the love of God triumphant on human love and of the victory of the religious sentiment which mutates in love is a feeling of conjugal loyalty. A year after the representation of his masterpiece Corneille did put in scene La Mort de Pompée and menteur, revealing himself in the latter and in the Suite du Menteur, comedy author. It is a period supremely fruitful for the poet, who in 1644 wrote and represented Rodogune and, later, Héraclius (1646). His fame had become great. Elected him at the Academy (1647), then wrote Nicomède (1651). A year after the fall of Pertharite take him by surprise and the avvilì. He returned to Rouen, where he worked on the translation of the Imitation of Christ as relief from her worries family sposatosi (in 1640, had sons of ill health that gave him not a few pains and that the premorirono). He devoted himself at the same time to care for a complete edition of his works. He returned to the theater only in 1659, on invitation of the Superintendent Fouquet, and had success with Edipe. Staying in Paris, Corneille is fully understood that the times were changed: the green youth had passed and with it the reign of Louis XIII and the suc- cessiva regency of Anne of Austria. Now with Louis XIV and the new classicism to the arts and letters, the Court and the public preferred Quinault and Racine. A poetic world new had taken the place of the one based, as the great models of antiquity, on the contrast of passions: reason dear to Corneille, whose tragedy was defined theater of desire and duty. He continued to write without more reach, however, the vertices of Polyeucte and Cinna. The style of the one who is considered one of the greatest poets of France shines forth in all its force also in other works: la toison d’Or (1661), Sertorius (1662), Sophonisbe (1663), Othon (1664), Agésilas (1666), Attila (1667), Tite et Bérénice (1670), Psyché (1671), Pulchérie (1672), Suréna (1674), with which he concluded his activities as a playwright away for ever from the theater; ten years after he died in the general indifference. In Corneille, where feeling and pride are shown as irreplaceable qualities of individuality to the supreme sacrifice, and perhaps more in the rhetoric that in its true sense tragic, France has often reflected, for an adherence to the psychological life of the man of every time, out of literary theories.
The Artists
Capiscuola of American pop art are considered R. Rauschenberg and J. Johns, even if their work differentiated appears in many respects from that of artists active in the middle phase of pop experiences such as C. Oldenburg, A. Warhol, R. Lichtenstein, J. Rosenquist, T. Wesselman, J. Dine (in addition to W. Copley, H. C. Westermann, R. Lindner and L. Rivers). Personality and different expressions had the pop art english represented by P. Blake, R. Hamilton, R. Smith, D. Hockney, R. B. Kitaj, A. Jones, J. Tilson, G. Laing, P. Caufield, P. Phillips, E. Paolozzi, etc. The spread of pop art in Europe since 1963, has given rise to different interpretations according to the different cultural tradition. In Italy pop experiences were conducted by G. Bertini, E. Baj, M. The wheel, to which followed G. Guerreschi and G. Romagnoni(for certain research interests are to be considered pop artists Adami, Devalle, Pistoletto, etc.). Between the representatives of the pop art French and German are respectively Niki de Saint Phalle, Christo, Martial Raysse, P. Klasen and W. Gaul. Esauritasi as artistic current specifies, pop art has provided valuable guidance to subsequent experience expressive, from conceptual art to arte povera, from the hyper-realism to the mec art. To pioneers, protagonists and epigone of pop art the Royal Academy of Arts in London has dedicated in 1991 a great review, subsequently presented also in Cologne and Madrid.

Op Art
Loc. English (from optical art, art optical) used in Italian as sf. to define a movement contemporary artistic emerged at the end of the Fifties of the XX century in post-informel climate. The term entered in artistic vocabulary as a result of the exhibition “The Responsive Eye”, which gathered together in New York (1965) European artists engaged in visual research, refers to a broad range of experimental research on perceptual processes based on foundations of Gestalt Psychologie (Shape Psychology), from which the definition of Argan “gestaltica Art”. The New York Review of 1965 determined a prevalence of the American experience on those communities, up to absorb, precisely in the use of the generic term op art, the value and the measure of the important European contribution within the framework of the various trends of kinetic art, to which also belongs to the activities of the current op. Which lead the process of geometrical abstraction, the op art offers visual suggestions of movement (sometimes impressed by a special mechanism) through mathematics organization of geometric shapes and combinations of pure colors in such a way as to act on sensitivity perceptual psychophysics (and not on the traditional psychological support and cultural) of the spectator, which is thus involved in an active participation. A form of art based on purely visual, for which they are valid even the names of visual art, optical art, etc., as well as the concepts of “programming”, “design”, because it is precisely on the basis of these operations is based the formal realization, graphics and coloring of the opera. In the historical perspective the various trends of visual research move from cultural background well precise: from the contribution of the avant-garde Russian plastics (constructivism) and Cubism (in particular that orfico, with the punctual experiences of Robert Delaunay and Sonia Delaunay), to the achievements of Kupka and those of futurism; from neoplasticismo Mondrian in search of the dutch magazine De Stijl, up to essential contributions accrued in the context of the Bauhaus by J. Albers, researches of Max Bill, Vasarely and Julio Le Parc and B. Munari.

Biography
The poet and playwright Spanish Madrid (1600-1681). The Son of a civil servant, had accomplished formation in the humanities at the Jesuit college of Madrid and then in the University of Alcalá and Salamanca: classical culture and scholastic theology remained always the essential supports of its vision of the world. We have news of some stunt performed by young Calderon de la Barca in that Madrid Filipino whose chronicles are crowded with authentic comedies of hood and sword (brawls, duels, rats, sanctions police official and cheerfully answered, etc.); you ignore however fully the love life and loving of the future poet, that he should not have to be free of adventures. Certain is only that had, perhaps by an actress, a natural son called first in certain documents, “nephew” and later (when Calderon de la Barca had already priest) frankly recognized. Little is known of his military life, if not that took part in the campaign of 1640 in Catalonia, behaving honorably. From some allusion contained ne el sitio de Breda (the Siege of Breda) and other tragedies, it is assumed a presence of Calderon de la Barca also in Flanders. However, was precocious her vocation of poetic and dramatic: in 1622 he took part in a competition poetic on Saint Isidore of Madrid and was praised by Lope de Vega; at least from 1629 he frequented the theaters and began to compose theatrical works. In 1636 its intermezzo, Los tres mayores prodigios (the three largest wonders), in reality rather mediocre, was very warmly applauded the court of Philip IV – the maximum center of theatrical activities of the country – and perhaps this is why he was awarded the cross of Santiago, which implied a recognition of hidalguía. In 1651 Calderon de la Barca became a priest and was first appointed chaplain of the Reyes Nuevos of Toledo (1653) and then honorary chaplain of the Court, in Madrid. Here he spent the last twenty years of life, respected and agiato, voluntarily secluded from “worldly rumor”, in a beautiful house full of books, paintings and musical instruments, yet giving to the theater many works, especially religious matter.

The critical
Of the five “parts” of theatrical works published while Calderon de la Barca was in life (1636, 1637, 1664, 1672 and 1677), no was prepared personally by him and the last was indeed disapproved by the author; Calderon de la Barca published only very late (1677), a collection of twelve autos sacramentales, clearly the only part of his theater that the appassionava, at least in old age. Fortunately, on the eve of his death (1680), at the request of the duke of Veragua, rightly concerned for the apocryphal works and poor that were attributed, Calderón de la Barca compiled a list of their secular comedies; on the basis of this Juan de Vera Tassis published the posthumous edition (1682-91), largely incomplete – many works calderoniane went up in this way lost, although it is always possible to some discovery, such as those that occurred in Czechoslovakia in 1958 the Grand Duke of Gandía – that served as a basis for the rear editions and collects what remains of the theater of Calderon de la Barca: about 120 comedies and dramas, 80 autos sacramentales, twenty interludes and other minor operettas. Calderon de la Barca had then an existence in complex happy and a “life” posthumously happier still: had in fact numerous successors, imitators and epigone, even in America, and continued to be represented, albeit with some interruption until Romanticism, when he had a relaunching Parliament, with admirers such as Goethe and Shelley, and then enhancers as Verlaine, that the prefixed to Shakespeare. La Vida es sueño and several other his dramas are now recognized as indisputable masterpieces of universal theater. And it is almost a common place to compare it to Dante to the height of the religious poetry and theology (a Dante, is obvious, medieval not but the Counter-Reformation and Baroque).

The works
For convenience critical, it is usual to classify the works of Calderon de la Barca in different groups: A) tragedies and comedies of religious topic, taken from the Bible, from the legendary of saints and the hagiographic tradition of, among which masterpieces such as El mágico prodigious (The Magician of Miracles), the devoción de la cruz (the devotion of the Cross), El purgatorio de San Patricio (the Purgatory of Saint Patrick) and Los Dos amantes of heaven ( the two lovers of heaven); B) historical dramas, among which emerge mainly El Principe constant ( prince constant) and El Alcalde de Zalamea (the mayor of Zalamea); C) comedies of weaving and hood and sword, which emphasizes the sum ability of the playwright, capable To draw new effects, with humorous grace from arcinote situations and common places: La dama duende (La dama ghost), El escondido y the tapada (the hidden and veiled), House with Dos Puertas mala es de guardar ( A house with two doors is difficult to preserve), etc.; (d) comedies knightly and mythological, sometimes romance as El Castillo de Lindabridis (Castle of Lindabris), the Puente de Mantible (the bridge of mandible), sometimes very delicate theatrical fables as echo y Narcissus, purpura de la Rosa (the purple of the pink); E) dramas of honor and jealousy, dealing with crudeness one of the main reasons of social morality Spanish Golden Century: El médico de su honra (the doctor Of their honor), a secreted agravio secreted venganza (A secret secret offense revenge), El pintor de su deshonra (The painter of its dishonor), El mayor monstruo, los celos (the greatest monster is jealousy); F) comedies “philosophical” or symbolic, with masterpieces such as La Vida es sueño (1635; life is dream), true and supreme dramatic synthesis of ideas moral and religious of baroque Spain; G) farces, interludes and other minor operettas, glistening fresh humor; h) the group of 80 autos sacramentales, eucharistic dramas in an act in which the strict theological argument is enlivened with effects often unforgettable, by a spurt of inexhaustible high lyricism: El Gran Teatro del Mundo (the grand theater of the world), No hay más luck Que Dios (has no more luck of God), El Nuevo hospicio de pobres (the new hospice for the poor) and many others. It is said that the theater of Calderon de la Barca has two main drawbacks: the poverty of the invention – so sometimes does not hesitate to resume subjects already covered by Lope de Vega and others – and weak characterization of characters (already Goethe remarked that the characters of Calderon de la Barca often seem to soldiers of molten lead in the same mold). Blatant is also the total conformism in respect of the official ideas of Filipino Spain: the company of theater calderoniano is undoubtedly static, a aristocraticismo sclerotizzato. This however does not mean much to the artistic value and theatrical masterpieces of Calderón de la Barca, which resist the time by virtue of a painful Christian conception of life and an intense energy’ theater and poetry. The same Baroque language, that spiacque to centuries of rationalism (XVIII and XIX), fascinates today (after the experiences of avant-garde) for the dazzling originality: in particular that of autos sacramentales

Corneille, Pierre
French playwright (Rouen 1606-Paris 1684). Born of a bourgeois family (his father was inspector of the waters and forests), he studied at the Jesuit college of Rouen. Excellent student, species in Latin, you journeyed back then often ancient literature, for both aspects declamatori, both for themes. Seneca and Lucan were her favorite authors. In 1628 Corneille began the profession of advocate real in his native city and perhaps not thought never to be able to devote to the theater. The love for a girl had inspired him to write a sonnet and not be excluded, the same Mélite comedy in which the inserted. The opera, represented first in Rouen, then in Paris in 1629, had a discreet success and the stimulated to devote themselves to the theater. In 1632 he wrote Clitandre ou l’Innocence délivrée and before 1635 had already at its active other four comedies, in which the topic romance is supported by a style full of vitality. His first tragedy, Médée, is of 1635. It was in the meantime transferred to Paris and enjoyed the protection of Richelieuu. It was indeed part of the companies of the “five authors” with Boisrobert, Colletet, The Estoile and Rotrou, who had the task of putting in verses topics born from the imagination of the cardinal. But Corneille, that he never had the virtue of the courtier, soon lost the sympathies of the protector and probably also the subsidies. The success of Médée, in which the influence of Seneca was all too evident, made from the prologue to triumph that was then consecrated by his most famous opera, the Cid. According to some, the tragedy should datarsi 1636, year in which Corneille wrote the illusion comique; but documents that have come to light fairly recently confirmed that the cid should be placed in 1637, or that the first representation at the Théâtre du Marais is 1637. The tragedy of love and duty, reveals in a conflict of feelings, the depth of the characters of the protagonists in a dynamic theatrical that the Aristotelian rules observes, if not the unity of place, strictly the time. Corneille, in reality, poorly accepted the concept of the three units of place, action, time, but always tried to remain faithful, especially to the last, because its theater clash of passions and the drama of the will, the synthesis and the immediate unfolding events is essential to the chasing of sentiment, unable to the furore and full of soul prolonged in time. The Cid for the happy ending that celebrates the love of the protagonist and Chimène, is considered tragicomedy, more than pure tragedy, and certainly also triumphed for items sentimental referred is rich. The success of the opera lifted envies and complaints from part of contemporary authors (Scudéry and Mairet) and, if not an envy by author, Corneille drew a resentment from protector by Cardinal Richelieu. Today there is a tendency to reduce greatly the rancor of the minister toward the lucky playwright. The so-called “Querelle du Cid” has its official documentation in sentiments de l’Académie sur le “Cid”, drawn up by Chapelain (1638): it is however likely that Richelieu wanted to put in evidence the tasks of arbitrator of literature that the academy founded by him (and then very criticized) had to take. The artist, grieved, was defended by the accusation of plagiarism, but he remained impressed, so much so that he does not want more imitate works of others and its tragedies, after the Cid, will draw only to history. Of pride, Corneille deepened its qualities poetic with critical principles of which did faith his speeches and its prefaces and the same Examens with which accompanied the publication of works. The most valid answer attacks the gave with new tragedies. Two in one year only (1640): Horace (Horace) and Cinna. Horace is once again the drama of love and duty, for the sentiments which bind the duelists (Horatii and Curiatii) to women of the opposing families. Corneille dedicated it to Richelieu, perhaps with a semblance of irony, perhaps to demonstrate that the three “units” (Met) could not prevent him to create works equally valid. Even Cinna, inspired by the treatise De clementia of Seneca, was successful. But certainly the opera more high after the Cid and indeed for the criticism, the masterpiece in the absolute sense, is Polyeucte (1642), undoubtedly consider as the “Canon” of the tragedy corneliana. The matter has been provided to Corneille from historic Surius. Polyeucte is the Christian drama of the love of God triumphant on human love and of the victory of the religious sentiment which mutates in love is a feeling of conjugal loyalty. A year after the representation of his masterpiece Corneille did put in scene La Mort de Pompée and menteur, revealing himself in the latter and in the Suite du Menteur, comedy author. It is a period supremely fruitful for the poet, who in 1644 wrote and represented Rodogune and, later, Héraclius (1646). His fame had become great. Elected him at the Academy (1647), then wrote Nicomède (1651). A year after the fall of Pertharite take him by surprise and the avvilì. He returned to Rouen, where he worked on the translation of the Imitation of Christ as relief from her worries family sposatosi (in 1640, had sons of ill health that gave him not a few pains and that the premorirono). He devoted himself at the same time to care for a complete edition of his works. He returned to the theater only in 1659, on invitation of the Superintendent Fouquet, and had success with Edipe. Staying in Paris, Corneille is fully understood that the times were changed: the green youth had passed and with it the reign of Louis XIII and the suc- cessiva regency of Anne of Austria. Now with Louis XIV and the new classicism to the arts and letters, the Court and the public preferred Quinault and Racine. A poetic world new had taken the place of the one based, as the great models of antiquity, on the contrast of passions: reason dear to Corneille, whose tragedy was defined theater of desire and duty. He continued to write without more reach, however, the vertices of Polyeucte and Cinna. The style of the one who is considered one of the greatest poets of France shines forth in all its force also in other works: la toison d’Or (1661), Sertorius (1662), Sophonisbe (1663), Othon (1664), Agésilas (1666), Attila (1667), Tite et Bérénice (1670), Psyché (1671), Pulchérie (1672), Suréna (1674), with which he concluded his activities as a playwright away for ever from the theater; ten years after he died in the general indifference. In Corneille, where feeling and pride are shown as irreplaceable qualities of individuality to the supreme sacrifice, and perhaps more in the rhetoric that in its true sense tragic, France has often reflected, for an adherence to the psychological life of the man of every time, out of literary theories.
The Artists
Capiscuola of American pop art are considered R. Rauschenberg and J. Johns, even if their work differentiated appears in many respects from that of artists active in the middle phase of pop experiences such as C. Oldenburg, A. Warhol, R. Lichtenstein, J. Rosenquist, T. Wesselman, J. Dine (in addition to W. Copley, H. C. Westermann, R. Lindner and L. Rivers). Personality and different expressions had the pop art english represented by P. Blake, R. Hamilton, R. Smith, D. Hockney, R. B. Kitaj, A. Jones, J. Tilson, G. Laing, P. Caufield, P. Phillips, E. Paolozzi, etc. The spread of pop art in Europe since 1963, has given rise to different interpretations according to the different cultural tradition. In Italy pop experiences were conducted by G. Bertini, E. Baj, M. The wheel, to which followed G. Guerreschi and G. Romagnoni(for certain research interests are to be considered pop artists Adami, Devalle, Pistoletto, etc.). Between the representatives of the pop art French and German are respectively Niki de Saint Phalle, Christo, Martial Raysse, P. Klasen and W. Gaul. Esauritasi as artistic current specifies, pop art has provided valuable guidance to subsequent experience expressive, from conceptual art to arte povera, from the hyper-realism to the mec art. To pioneers, protagonists and epigone of pop art the Royal Academy of Arts in London has dedicated in 1991 a great review, subsequently presented also in Cologne and Madrid.

Op Art
Loc. English (from optical art, art optical) used in Italian as sf. to define a movement contemporary artistic emerged at the end of the Fifties of the XX century in post-informel climate. The term entered in artistic vocabulary as a result of the exhibition “The Responsive Eye”, which gathered together in New York (1965) European artists engaged in visual research, refers to a broad range of experimental research on perceptual processes based on foundations of Gestalt Psychologie (Shape Psychology), from which the definition of Argan “gestaltica Art”. The New York Review of 1965 determined a prevalence of the American experience on those communities, up to absorb, precisely in the use of the generic term op art, the value and the measure of the important European contribution within the framework of the various trends of kinetic art, to which also belongs to the activities of the current op. Which lead the process of geometrical abstraction, the op art offers visual suggestions of movement (sometimes impressed by a special mechanism) through mathematics organization of geometric shapes and combinations of pure colors in such a way as to act on sensitivity perceptual psychophysics (and not on the traditional psychological support and cultural) of the spectator, which is thus involved in an active participation. A form of art based on purely visual, for which they are valid even the names of visual art, optical art, etc., as well as the concepts of “programming”, “design”, because it is precisely on the basis of these operations is based the formal realization, graphics and coloring of the opera. In the historical perspective the various trends of visual research move from cultural background well precise: from the contribution of the avant-garde Russian plastics (constructivism) and Cubism (in particular that orfico, with the punctual experiences of Robert Delaunay and Sonia Delaunay), to the achievements of Kupka and those of futurism; from neoplasticismo Mondrian in search of the dutch magazine De Stijl, up to essential contributions accrued in the context of the Bauhaus by J. Albers, researches of Max Bill, Vasarely and Julio Le Parc and B. Munari.

Biography
The poet and playwright Spanish Madrid (1600-1681). The Son of a civil servant, had accomplished formation in the humanities at the Jesuit college of Madrid and then in the University of Alcalá and Salamanca: classical culture and scholastic theology remained always the essential supports of its vision of the world. We have news of some stunt performed by young Calderon de la Barca in that Madrid Filipino whose chronicles are crowded with authentic comedies of hood and sword (brawls, duels, rats, sanctions police official and cheerfully answered, etc.); you ignore however fully the love life and loving of the future poet, that he should not have to be free of adventures. Certain is only that had, perhaps by an actress, a natural son called first in certain documents, “nephew” and later (when Calderon de la Barca had already priest) frankly recognized. Little is known of his military life, if not that took part in the campaign of 1640 in Catalonia, behaving honorably. From some allusion contained ne el sitio de Breda (the Siege of Breda) and other tragedies, it is assumed a presence of Calderon de la Barca also in Flanders. However, was precocious her vocation of poetic and dramatic: in 1622 he took part in a competition poetic on Saint Isidore of Madrid and was praised by Lope de Vega; at least from 1629 he frequented the theaters and began to compose theatrical works. In 1636 its intermezzo, Los tres mayores prodigios (the three largest wonders), in reality rather mediocre, was very warmly applauded the court of Philip IV – the maximum center of theatrical activities of the country – and perhaps this is why he was awarded the cross of Santiago, which implied a recognition of hidalguía. In 1651 Calderon de la Barca became a priest and was first appointed chaplain of the Reyes Nuevos of Toledo (1653) and then honorary chaplain of the Court, in Madrid. Here he spent the last twenty years of life, respected and agiato, voluntarily secluded from “worldly rumor”, in a beautiful house full of books, paintings and musical instruments, yet giving to the theater many works, especially religious matter.

The critical
Of the five “parts” of theatrical works published while Calderon de la Barca was in life (1636, 1637, 1664, 1672 and 1677), no was prepared personally by him and the last was indeed disapproved by the author; Calderon de la Barca published only very late (1677), a collection of twelve autos sacramentales, clearly the only part of his theater that the appassionava, at least in old age. Fortunately, on the eve of his death (1680), at the request of the duke of Veragua, rightly concerned for the apocryphal works and poor that were attributed, Calderón de la Barca compiled a list of their secular comedies; on the basis of this Juan de Vera Tassis published the posthumous edition (1682-91), largely incomplete – many works calderoniane went up in this way lost, although it is always possible to some discovery, such as those that occurred in Czechoslovakia in 1958 the Grand Duke of Gandía – that served as a basis for the rear editions and collects what remains of the theater of Calderon de la Barca: about 120 comedies and dramas, 80 autos sacramentales, twenty interludes and other minor operettas. Calderon de la Barca had then an existence in complex happy and a “life” posthumously happier still: had in fact numerous successors, imitators and epigone, even in America, and continued to be represented, albeit with some interruption until Romanticism, when he had a relaunching Parliament, with admirers such as Goethe and Shelley, and then enhancers as Verlaine, that the prefixed to Shakespeare. La Vida es sueño and several other his dramas are now recognized as indisputable masterpieces of universal theater. And it is almost a common place to compare it to Dante to the height of the religious poetry and theology (a Dante, is obvious, medieval not but the Counter-Reformation and Baroque).

The works
For convenience critical, it is usual to classify the works of Calderon de la Barca in different groups: A) tragedies and comedies of religious topic, taken from the Bible, from the legendary of saints and the hagiographic tradition of, among which masterpieces such as El mágico prodigious (The Magician of Miracles), the devoción de la cruz (the devotion of the Cross), El purgatorio de San Patricio (the Purgatory of Saint Patrick) and Los Dos amantes of heaven ( the two lovers of heaven); B) historical dramas, among which emerge mainly El Principe constant ( prince constant) and El Alcalde de Zalamea (the mayor of Zalamea); C) comedies of weaving and hood and sword, which emphasizes the sum ability of the playwright, capable To draw new effects, with humorous grace from arcinote situations and common places: La dama duende (La dama ghost), El escondido y the tapada (the hidden and veiled), House with Dos Puertas mala es de guardar ( A house with two doors is difficult to preserve), etc.; (d) comedies knightly and mythological, sometimes romance as El Castillo de Lindabridis (Castle of Lindabris), the Puente de Mantible (the bridge of mandible), sometimes very delicate theatrical fables as echo y Narcissus, purpura de la Rosa (the purple of the pink); E) dramas of honor and jealousy, dealing with crudeness one of the main reasons of social morality Spanish Golden Century: El médico de su honra (the doctor Of their honor), a secreted agravio secreted venganza (A secret secret offense revenge), El pintor de su deshonra (The painter of its dishonor), El mayor monstruo, los celos (the greatest monster is jealousy); F) comedies “philosophical” or symbolic, with masterpieces such as La Vida es sueño (1635; life is dream), true and supreme dramatic synthesis of ideas moral and religious of baroque Spain; G) farces, interludes and other minor operettas, glistening fresh humor; h) the group of 80 autos sacramentales, eucharistic dramas in an act in which the strict theological argument is enlivened with effects often unforgettable, by a spurt of inexhaustible high lyricism: El Gran Teatro del Mundo (the grand theater of the world), No hay más luck Que Dios (has no more luck of God), El Nuevo hospicio de pobres (the new hospice for the poor) and many others. It is said that the theater of Calderon de la Barca has two main drawbacks: the poverty of the invention – so sometimes does not hesitate to resume subjects already covered by Lope de Vega and others – and weak characterization of characters (already Goethe remarked that the characters of Calderon de la Barca often seem to soldiers of molten lead in the same mold). Blatant is also the total conformism in respect of the official ideas of Filipino Spain: the company of theater calderoniano is undoubtedly static, a aristocraticismo sclerotizzato. This however does not mean much to the artistic value and theatrical masterpieces of Calderón de la Barca, which resist the time by virtue of a painful Christian conception of life and an intense energy’ theater and poetry. The same Baroque language, that spiacque to centuries of rationalism (XVIII and XIX), fascinates today (after the experiences of avant-garde) for the dazzling originality: in particular that of autos sacramentales
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Corneille, Pierre
French playwright (Rouen 1606-Paris 1684). Born of a bourgeois family (his father was inspector of the waters and forests), he studied at the Jesuit college of Rouen. Excellent student, species in Latin, you journeyed back then often ancient literature, for both aspects declamatori, both for themes. Seneca and Lucan were her favorite authors. In 1628 Corneille began the profession of advocate real in his native city and perhaps not thought never to be able to devote to the theater. The love for a girl had inspired him to write a sonnet and not be excluded, the same Mélite comedy in which the inserted. The opera, represented first in Rouen, then in Paris in 1629, had a discreet success and the stimulated to devote themselves to the theater. In 1632 he wrote Clitandre ou l’Innocence délivrée and before 1635 had already at its active other four comedies, in which the topic romance is supported by a style full of vitality. His first tragedy, Médée, is of 1635. It was in the meantime transferred to Paris and enjoyed the protection of Richelieuu. It was indeed part of the companies of the “five authors” with Boisrobert, Colletet, The Estoile and Rotrou, who had the task of putting in verses topics born from the imagination of the cardinal. But Corneille, that he never had the virtue of the courtier, soon lost the sympathies of the protector and probably also the subsidies. The success of Médée, in which the influence of Seneca was all too evident, made from the prologue to triumph that was then consecrated by his most famous opera, the Cid. According to some, the tragedy should datarsi 1636, year in which Corneille wrote the illusion comique; but documents that have come to light fairly recently confirmed that the cid should be placed in 1637, or that the first representation at the Théâtre du Marais is 1637. The tragedy of love and duty, reveals in a conflict of feelings, the depth of the characters of the protagonists in a dynamic theatrical that the Aristotelian rules observes, if not the unity of place, strictly the time. Corneille, in reality, poorly accepted the concept of the three units of place, action, time, but always tried to remain faithful, especially to the last, because its theater clash of passions and the drama of the will, the synthesis and the immediate unfolding events is essential to the chasing of sentiment, unable to the furore and full of soul prolonged in time. The Cid for the happy ending that celebrates the love of the protagonist and Chimène, is considered tragicomedy, more than pure tragedy, and certainly also triumphed for items sentimental referred is rich. The success of the opera lifted envies and complaints from part of contemporary authors (Scudéry and Mairet) and, if not an envy by author, Corneille drew a resentment from protector by Cardinal Richelieu. Today there is a tendency to reduce greatly the rancor of the minister toward the lucky playwright. The so-called “Querelle du Cid” has its official documentation in sentiments de l’Académie sur le “Cid”, drawn up by Chapelain (1638): it is however likely that Richelieu wanted to put in evidence the tasks of arbitrator of literature that the academy founded by him (and then very criticized) had to take. The artist, grieved, was defended by the accusation of plagiarism, but he remained impressed, so much so that he does not want more imitate works of others and its tragedies, after the Cid, will draw only to history. Of pride, Corneille deepened its qualities poetic with critical principles of which did faith his speeches and its prefaces and the same Examens with which accompanied the publication of works. The most valid answer attacks the gave with new tragedies. Two in one year only (1640): Horace (Horace) and Cinna. Horace is once again the drama of love and duty, for the sentiments which bind the duelists (Horatii and Curiatii) to women of the opposing families. Corneille dedicated it to Richelieu, perhaps with a semblance of irony, perhaps to demonstrate that the three “units” (Met) could not prevent him to create works equally valid. Even Cinna, inspired by the treatise De clementia of Seneca, was successful. But certainly the opera more high after the Cid and indeed for the criticism, the masterpiece in the absolute sense, is Polyeucte (1642), undoubtedly consider as the “Canon” of the tragedy corneliana. The matter has been provided to Corneille from historic Surius. Polyeucte is the Christian drama of the love of God triumphant on human love and of the victory of the religious sentiment which mutates in love is a feeling of conjugal loyalty. A year after the representation of his masterpiece Corneille did put in scene La Mort de Pompée and menteur, revealing himself in the latter and in the Suite du Menteur, comedy author. It is a period supremely fruitful for the poet, who in 1644 wrote and represented Rodogune and, later, Héraclius (1646). His fame had become great. Elected him at the Academy (1647), then wrote Nicomède (1651). A year after the fall of Pertharite take him by surprise and the avvilì. He returned to Rouen, where he worked on the translation of the Imitation of Christ as relief from her worries family sposatosi (in 1640, had sons of ill health that gave him not a few pains and that the premorirono). He devoted himself at the same time to care for a complete edition of his works. He returned to the theater only in 1659, on invitation of the Superintendent Fouquet, and had success with Edipe. Staying in Paris, Corneille is fully understood that the times were changed: the green youth had passed and with it the reign of Louis XIII and the suc- cessiva regency of Anne of Austria. Now with Louis XIV and the new classicism to the arts and letters, the Court and the public preferred Quinault and Racine. A poetic world new had taken the place of the one based, as the great models of antiquity, on the contrast of passions: reason dear to Corneille, whose tragedy was defined theater of desire and duty. He continued to write without more reach, however, the vertices of Polyeucte and Cinna. The style of the one who is considered one of the greatest poets of France shines forth in all its force also in other works: la toison d’Or (1661), Sertorius (1662), Sophonisbe (1663), Othon (1664), Agésilas (1666), Attila (1667), Tite et Bérénice (1670), Psyché (1671), Pulchérie (1672), Suréna (1674), with which he concluded his activities as a playwright away for ever from the theater; ten years after he died in the general indifference. In Corneille, where feeling and pride are shown as irreplaceable qualities of individuality to the supreme sacrifice, and perhaps more in the rhetoric that in its true sense tragic, France has often reflected, for an adherence to the psychological life of the man of every time, out of literary theories.

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